[art] The Digital Learning Challenge: Obstacles to Educational Uses of Copyrighted Material in the Digital Age

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A Foundational White Paper

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Table of contents
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

PART ONE: THE OVERVIEW

1. Introduction
1.1. Promise of Digital Learning
1.2. Brief Background About Copyright Law
1.2.1. Copyright Fundamentals
1.2.2. Limits on Copyrights
1.2.3. The Digital Millenium Copyright Act

2. Summaries of Case Studies
2.1. The History Teacher Network: Copyright Law Hampers Teachers’ Sharing of Educational Resources
2.2. DVDs in Film Studies Classes: DRM and the DMCA Interfere with Educational Use of Film Content
2.3. The Database of Recorded American Music: Copyright Burdens Educational Distribution of Music
2.4. WGBH: Statutes Keyed to Outdated Technological Assumptions Prevent Educational Use of Content in Public Broadcasting


PART TWO: OBSTACLES TO DIGITAL LEARNING

3. Obstacle: Uncertain or Unfavorable Copyright Law
3.1. Educational Use Exceptions
3.1.1. The Classroom Use Exception
3.1.2. The TEACH Act
3.1.3. Library and Archives Exception
3.1.4. Public Broadcasting Exception
3.2. The Fair Use Doctrine
3.2.1. Some limited grounds for optimism
3.2.2. Application of the statute
3.2.3. Negotiated guidelines for fair use
3.3. Statutory Damages and Legal Fees
3.4. Education and Copyright Law in Non-U.S. Systems

4. Obstacle: DRM Technology
4.1. Incentives for Rightsholder Use of DRM Systems
4.1.1. Piracy
4.1.2. Price Discrimination
4.1.3. The Effect of Different Markets
4.2. Inducements for Educator Use of DRM Systems
4.2.1. Strict Licensing Requirements
4.2.2. Lawsuit Avoidance
4.2.3. Educator Interest in Protecting Intellectual Property
4.2.4. Educational Impact
4.2.5. Architecture of Course Management Systems

5. Obstacle: Burdensome Rights Clearance Process
5.1. Determining Necessity of a License
5.2. Locating the Rightsholder
5.2.1. Licensing Intermediaries
5.1. Orphan Works
5.3. Negotiating a License
5.4. Paying for a License
5.5. Complying with Other License Conditions

6. Unduly Cautious Gatekeepers
6.1. Universities
6.2. Publishers and Other Distributors
6.3. Insurers

PART THREE: SOME PATHS TOWARD REFORM

7. Some Paths Toward Reform
7.1. Legal Reform
7.1.1. Targeted Legal Reforms
7.1.2. Broader Legal Reforms
7.1.3. Comprehensive Compulsory Licensing
7.2. Improving the Clearance Process Through Technology
7.3. Developing Educator-Defined Best Practices
7.4. The Promise of More Open Distribution
7.5. Some Areas for Further Study

CONCLUSION

8. Conclusion

9. Acknowledgements and Contributors

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Fuente: [educause]

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